We present a method to obtain the individual charge-state-dependent kinetic-energy distributions of tin ions emanating from a laser-produced plasma from their joint overlapping energy distributions measured by means of a retarding field energy analyzer (RFA). The method of extracting charge state specific parameters from the ion signals is described mathematically, and reinforced with experimental results. The absolute charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions is obtained from ns-pulse Nd:YAG-laser-produced microdroplet tin plasmas in a setting relevant for state-of-the-art extreme ultraviolet nanolithography

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Springer Science
Appl. Phys. B- Lasers O
EUV Plasma Processes

Poirier, L., Lassise, A., Mostafa, Y., Behnke, L., Braaksma, N., Assink, L., … Versolato, O. (2022). Energy- and charge-state-resolved spectrometry of tin laser-produced plasma using a retarding field energy analyzer. Appl. Phys. B- Lasers O, 128(7), 135: 1–7. doi:10.1007/s00340-022-07844-5