We experimentally study the vaporization of free-flying liquid tin sheets when exposed to a 100-ns laser pulse with an intensity between 0.2×107 and 4×107 W/cm2, a case inspired by current developments around “advanced target shaping” in industrial laser-produced plasma sources for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) nanolithography machines. Our findings reveal a gradual vaporization and a linear relationship between the average vaporization rate and laser pulse intensity (with a prefactor of 1.0⁢(3)×10−7ms−1/Wcm−2), for various targets ranging from 20nmto200nm in thickness. We introduce a numerical one-dimensional heating and vaporization model based on Hertz-Knudsen evaporation and find excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data. We furthermore demonstrate that the amount of vaporization of liquid tin targets in the investigated laser intensity range is governed solely by the deposited fluence, and collapse all data onto a single nondimensional curve, enabling the accurate prediction of vaporization dynamics in applications in future development of EUV sources.

Phys. Rev. Res.
EUV Plasma Processes

Schubert, H. K., Engels, D., Meijer, R., Liu, B., & Versolato, O. (2024). Scaling relations in laser-induced vaporization of thin free-flying liquid metal sheets. Phys. Rev. Res., 6(2), 023182: 1–12. doi:10.1103/physrevresearch.6.023182