We experimentally demonstrate control over the direction of radiation of a beam that passes through a square nanoaperture in a metal film. The ratio of the aperture size and the wavelength is such that only three guided modes, each with different spatial symmetries, can be excited. Using a spatial light modulator, the superposition of the three modes can be altered, thus allowing for a controlled variation of the radiation pattern that emanates from the nanoaperture. Robust and stable steering of 9.5° in two orthogonal directions was achieved.

Nano Lett.
EUV Plasma Processes

Dreissen, L. S., Schouten, H. F., Ubachs, W., Raghunathan, S. B., & Visser, T. D. (2018). Active Two-Dimensional Steering of Radiation from a Nanoaperture. Nano Lett., 18(11), 7207–7210. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03319